English Education Essays

How can effective learning be achieved? To answer this question, many learning theories have been put forward over the centuries. Some of the theories have been widely adopted by teachers. For example; behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism are the most known and accepted learning theories. However, these theories are open to discussion in terms of their effectiveness. In this essay, I am going to explain these theories and discuss how effective they are.

“Behaviorism, also known as behavioral psychology, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning.”

This theory states that students can learn effectively with conditioning. Behaviorists define learning as a response to stimulus. They do not take students’ cognitive and affective condition into consideration. In my opinion, this is a drawback because learning is not just a simple process and can not be explained as a change in human behaviors. Another point I disagree with this theory is that behaviorists say a human being’s learning is similar to an animal’s learning. They put humans’ way of learning  and animals’ way of learning into the same category. If I were a teacher, I would not use this theory in my class. I would be aware that every student is different from each other in terms of learning

Second theory, cognitivism, is “the psychology of learning which emphasizes human cognition or intelligence as a special endowment enabling man to form hypotheses and develop intellectually.” This theory can be considered as a challenge and opposition against behaviorists. Cognitivists advocate that learning is “a complex process which has an effect on the mind.” The most famous cognitivist, Piaget, has a theory on cognitivism. He came up with some ideas which helps effective learning in his theory of cognitive development. He says every student has a different cognitive structure. On the whole, I agree with cognitivists’ opinions. In my opinion, teachers should often use this theory in their lessons.

Last  but not least theory is constructivism. Constructivism is defined as a learning theory which “views learning as a process in which the learner actively constructs or builds new ideas or concepts based upon current and past knowledge or experience.” Over the last years, teachers in Turkey have started to use this theory in their classes. Instead of memorizing knowledge, students are urged to reconstruct knowledge on their mind. I think this is an effective way of learning and knowledge makes more sense on our mind if we reconstruct knowledge ourselves.

In conclusion, there are many theories related to effective learning. Behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism are the leading ones. We see that these  theories have pros and cons. If someone wants to be competent teacher, he or she should know these theories very well and use them at the proper time.

EDUCATION SYSTEM IN TURKEY

English Education Essays Education is an inevitable part of our lives. One of the things that will take a country forward is education. That is why, countries give much importance to education. However countries are generally different from each other in terms of educational system they use to educate their students. Turkey, for example, has an educational system which has  similarities and differences among other countries. In this essay, I am going the explain education system in Turkey and evaluate its effectiveness

Education in Turkey has two dimensions, one of which is formal education. Formal education is ‘‘classroom-based education provided by trained teachers.

“It basically consists of four stages which are primary education, secondary education, high school education and higher education. Apart from these, there are pre-primary education which is not obligatory and master’s programs for people who wants to get further education.”

Pre-Primary education includes the optional education of children between 36-72 month who are under the age of compulsory primary education. ’’It aims to give basic education before primary education. In our country, this kind of education is not common but national education ministry has started to take actions to make pre-primary education more common. Indeed, pre-primary education is very important. As education is a lifelong process, it is better to start education at early ages. In pre-primary education, children learn basic subjects which they will need in their daily life and they develop their social and mental capabilities. I strongly believe that schools which provide pre- primary education should be more common and children start their education at an early age.

Primary education is a kind of education which lasts for eight years, obligatory for every Turkish citizens and free of charge. Primary education aims to carry out  some particular goals and objectives.

“One of the goals is to provide every Turkish citizen with fundamental knowledge, skills and behaviors to adapt to society”.

It also aims to ensure that Turkish students acquire moral and cultural values of society itself. This stage of education  is very essential for me because students shape their personality in this stage and learns basic rules and knowledge that help them facilitate their lives.

High education process starts just after eight-year primary education. Higher education was 3 years before an education law which prolongs three-year higher education to four years was adopted. Students choose their department which they would like to study in high school. Basically, there are four fields students can specialize in. Higher education is an important step for me because it is an opportunity for students to improve themselves, their foreign language ability and social skills.

University life begins with the end of high school education. In our country, students take an exam which is called OSS to study in higher education. According to points they get in the exam, they choose universities they would like to study and they are placed to universities by the Higher Education Council. Higher education is generally four years but some universities administer one-year English education to improve student’s foreign language knowledge. There are both private and state universities with the total number
“153”. They present two or four year education providing Bachelor’s degree. To graduate from a university is very important to find a satisfying job in Turkey. Higher education also helps student reach the level of “self-actualization” according to famous philosopher Maslow. There are also some education programs such as Master’s programs for those who want to continue their education life after university but these sorts of programs are not common in our country.

In conclusion, Turkish education system consists of different stages. Each of the stages is crucial for students to improve themselves and adapt to world. We can say that Turkey has relatively effective education system but more has to be done to increase effectiveness of education.

EATING DISORDERS – English Education Essays

“Eating disorders refer to a group of conditions characterized by abnormal eating habits that may involve either insufficient or excessive food intake to the detriment of an individual’s physical and emotional health.”

Most common types are binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa. For example, binge eating is a pattern of disordered eating which consists of episodes of uncontrolled eating and it is a central future of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa.

Although, eating disorders are different from each other, their possible causes are generally the same. Scientists are still searching on the underlying causes of these eating disorders. Soon, we know that some specific factors may cause to the development of eating disorders. While eating disorders can start with concerns about weight and food, mostly they are about more than food. We can say that eating disorders may arise from combination of causes of psychological, interpersonal, social and biological factors.

First of all, there are many psychological factors that may cause to eating disorders such as low self-esteem, depression and isolation. Low self-esteem may make individual feel uncomfortable and disrespectful to themselves and that may contribute some eating disorders in some cases. Another factor is depression which is a problematic issue since it is not clear whether depression is the cause or effect of eating disorders. However, depression is  common in families of patients with eating disorders. The other essential factor is isolation which can be mostly depressing and stressful. So, to suppress  these negative feelings, an individual may be interested in emotional eating in which food serves as a source of comfort. To conclude, low self-esteem, depression and isolation are the possible psychological causes of eating disorders.

Secondly, interpersonal factors such as troubled family and personal relationships and child maltreatment may cause eating disorders. The last researches show that troubled family and personal relationships are intrinsic component in developing eating disorders. Moreover, parents eating patterns, the degree of involvement, general psychosocial climate of home and presence or absence of a stable environment affect eating behaviors of individuals especially children. Child maltreatment is the other interpersonal component that causes eating disorders. Child abuse, which includes physical, sexual and psychological abuse, is a hasty elements in psychiatric disorders including eating disorders. Children or individuals that are affected by abuse can develop eating disorder to have a sense of comfort or control. All in all, troubled family and personal relationships and child maltreatment  are the interpersonal factors that may mostly contribute to eating disorders.

The third cause of eating disorders is social factor which includes cultural  and peer pressure. Some scientists have find out that cultural pressure on thinness may be result in some eating disorders since culture glorifies thinness and give importance to obtain the perfect ideal body as  portrayed by the media, fashion and entertainment industry. Therefore, the eating behavior or attitude may be changed in a negative way. Another factor is peer pressure which causes concerns about body image and appearance especially during teenage. Hence, individual attitudes toward eating may change and they may concern about their weight and how they appear to others. Consequently, social causes which are culture and peer pressure may trigger eating disorders sometimes.

The last cause is biological factor which includes unbalanced chemicals of brain and genetic predisposition. Researches are still studying on biological causes of eating disorders and they have found that some chemicals in the brain, which organize hunger, taste and digestion, are unbalanced. As a result, individuals may  suffer from eating disorders due to unbalanced chemicals in the brain. Another factor is genetic predisposition. For example, some people are genetically prone to develop  eating disorders. In other words, eating disorders may run in their families and when environmental conditions become, the eating disorder may appear. To sum up, biological factors which are unbalanced chemicals in the brain and genetic predisposition may cause eating disorders.

In conclusion, ‘there is no single possible cause for eating disorders.

They are complex situations which can emerge from a variety of potential causes. Firstly, there are psychological factors such as low self-esteem, depression and isolation that may cause eating disorders. The second cause is interpersonal factors such as troubled family and personal relationships and child maltreatment which may contribute developing eating disorders. The third cause is social factors includes cultural and peer pressure that may result in eating disorders. The last cause is biological factor includes certain unbalanced chemicals and genetic predisposition which may make individuals suffer from eating disorders. As we see, there is different kinds of possible causes although the exact cause of eating disorders is unknown. Since eating disorders are increasing day by day all over the world,   to find some solutions for eating disorders, researches should be done to understand the exact causes of eating disorders.